Type 1 diabetes is a disease that cannot be prevented. It is not caused by unhealthy lifestyle habits.

It requires a lot of adaptation and adjustment in all areas of life.

If you are living with type 1 diabetes, the different topics below will help you quickly find information about the disease and strategies to help you manage it.

In type 1 diabetes, the immune system attacks the beta cells in the pancreas. Insulin is therefore no longer produced and glucose (sugar) accumulates in the blood.

The main complications of diabetes are retinopathy (eye damage), nephropathy (kidney damage), neuropathy (nerve damage), and cardiovascular damage (heart and blood vessels).

Most people living with type 1 diabetes use a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system. Capillary blood glucose may sometimes be necessary to confirm the CGM reading.

High blood sugar (hyperglycemia) is a blood sugar level above normal values, which is over 7 mmol/L in the morning or 4 hours after eating, or over 10 mmol/L 2 hours after eating.

A lack of insulin can cause diabetic ketoacidosis. It is characterized by hyperglycemia and the presence of ketones in your blood.

Hypoglycemia is a decrease in blood glucose levels below normal values (less than 4 mmol/L). It is important to treat hypoglycemia because it can cause confusion or fainting and lead to a fall or accident. In the long term, repeated hypoglycemia can have serious health consequences.

Insulin is essential for survival in people living with type 1 diabetes. It can be given by injection or with an insulin pump.

When insulin is given by injection, a technique must be respected to ensure proper insulin absorption.

The insulin pump is a portable device that continuously delivers rapid-acting insulin. It is covered by a RAMQ access program for individuals 18 years of age and under and for adults who enrolled in the program before turning 18.

Knowing the sources and amounts of carbohydrates in food is essential for people living with type 1 diabetes. It can allow you to adjust your insulin dose based on the carbohydrates at meals. Carbohydrates are found, among other foods, in bread, pasta, potatoes, and fruit.

Reading a nutrition label can help you identify the amount of carbohydrates in the food, as well as check the quality of the ingredients. After your diagnosis, you will need to become familiar with the nutritional values of several products in order to count the carbs in your meals and snacks. With practice and time, you will know how much carbs are contained in the foods you eat, and their effects on your blood sugar.

Physical activity can cause significant changes in blood sugar levels and put you at a higher risk of hypoglycemia.

It is normal to experience stress related to diabetes. It can have a significant influence on diabetes management and have a serious impact on your blood sugar levels.

A type 1 diabetes is a shock. You will experience many different emotions as you learn to live with the disease.

People living with type 1 diabetes are automatically eligible for federal and provincial tax credits since 2021. However, forms must be completed and signed by their physician, endocrinologist or nurse practitioner to obtain it.