Diabetes is a chronic disease that cannot be cured but can be controlled.

Usually, blood sugar is maintained at normal values due primarily to the action of insulin. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas.
It acts like a key, allowing the sugar in the blood to enter the body’s cells to be used as a source of energy.

In type 2 diabetes, two phenomena are generally at work:

  • Resistance of the body to the action of insulin;
  • A decrease or absence of insulin production.

As a result, sugar cannot enter cells and accumulates in the blood, resulting in hyperglycemia, an increase in blood glucose above normal values.

In the long term, hyperglycemia can lead to the development of certain complications, including the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart and blood vessels.

There are different types of diabetes: prediabetes, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, pregnancy diabetes and other types of diabetes that are rarer.

Research and writing: Diabetes Québec team of health care professionals

November 2021

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